Appeasement and the Road to War, to 1939
Assessment: In the exam you will write ONE ESSAY on Appeasement from a choice of THREE. Each essay is marked out of 20.
You are given marks for Knowledge (6 marks)
Structure (4 marks)
Argument /evaluation( 10 marks).
Course Content: A study of Fascist foreign policy after 1933 and the reactions of the democratic powers to it, the development of the policy of appeasement, its failure and the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, illustrating the themes of ideology, conflict and diplomacy.
1. An evaluation of the reasons for the aggressive nature of the foreign policies of Germany and Italy in the 1930s.
The Peace Settlement of 1919; Fascist ideology; economic difficulties after 1929; weakness of the League of Nations; the British policy of appeasement.
2. An assessment of the methods used by Germany and Italy to pursue their foreign policies from 1933.
Rearmament by Germany; military agreements, pacts and alliances; Fascist strategies employed in the crises between 1933 and 1939.
3. An evaluation of the reasons for the British policy of appeasement, 1936-1938.
Economic difficulties; attitudes to the Paris Peace Settlement; public opinion; pacifism; concern over the Empire; lack of reliable allies; military weakness; fear of spread of Communism; beliefs of Chamberlain.
4. An assessment of the success of British foreign policy in containing fascist aggression, 1935 – March 1938.
Aims; Abyssinia; Rhineland; Naval Agreement; non intervention; the Anschluss of March 1938.
5. An assessment of the Munich agreement.
Arguments for and against the settlement; differing views of the Munich settlement.
6. An evaluation of the reasons for the decision to abandon the policy of appeasement and for the outbreak of war in 1939.
Changing British attitudes towards appeasement; occupation of Bohemia and the collapse of Czechoslovakia; the developing crisis over Poland: British diplomacy and relations with the Soviet Union; the position of France; the Nazi-Soviet Pact; the invasion of Poland.